Calcium, magnesium and vitamin D are all essential for proper bone formation. Approximately half of total magnesium in the human body is found in bone. These nutrients can be specifically deficient in the diet due to multiple factors including food choices, stress, rigorous exercise and low sun exposure. Magnesium deficiency may be a risk factor since deficiency alters calcium metabolism and the hormones that regulate calcium. Vitamin D is vital to the bone formation process and deficiency has be associated with non-specific musculoskeletal pain.